Guidelines and EPA+DHA: Irreconcilable?

Guidelines and EPA+DHA: Irreconcilable?

  Prof. Dr. C. von Schacky, Preventive Cardiology, Med Clinic I, University of Munich, and Omegametrix, Martinsried, both Germany. Email: Clemens.vonSchacky@med.uni-muenchen.de   Cardiac societies, like the American Heart Association (AHA) or the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), periodically publish guidelines, among them on primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (AHA) or cardiovascular prevention (ESC) (1,2). In addition, AHA also sometimes publishes “scientific statements” or “science advisories” on certain topics, of which a recent one dealt with supplements containing the two omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid…

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Maternal Plasma Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Concentrations Increase at the Critical Time of Neural Tube Closure

  Barbara J Meyer (University of Wollongong, Australia) Dilys J Freeman (University of Glasgow, UK)   Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism DHA is an omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) containing 22 carbons and 6 carbon to carbon double bonds denoted as 22:6n-3. It is an n-3 fatty acid because the first carbon to carbon double bond is on the third carbon from the methyl end of the fatty acid chain: hence the terminology n minus 3 (n-3) because you need to count backwards…

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Enhancing Breast Cancer Treatment with Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Miranda Brun, PhD and Catherine J. Field, PhD RD Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada   In North America and Europe, breast cancer accounts for over 25% of all new cancer diagnoses in women, and approximately 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime (1-3). Despite ongoing advances in screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and one of the most expensive to treat (4). Relapse and metastasis…

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F3-Isoprostanes and F4-Neuroprostanes: Non-enzymatic Cyclic Oxygenated Metabolites of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Biomarkers and Bioactive Lipids

Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Valérie Bultel-Poncé, Guillaume Reversat, Alexandre Guy, Joseph Vercauteren, Claire Vigor, Thierry Durand. Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, ENSCM, Montpellier, France.   Thierry Durand Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, ENSCM, Montpellier (France). Phone: +33 4 11 75 95 58 / Email: Thierry.Durand@umontpellier.fr   Abstract: The isoprostanoids are non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) formed in vivo by free radical mechanism. Those cyclic oxygenated metabolites named isoprostanes (IsoPs) were originally discovered…

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Is Arachidonic Acid Required to Balance Docosahexaenoic Acid in Infant Feeding for Proper Development?

Thomas Brenna Division of Nutritional Sciences Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 USA jtb4@cornell.edu / 607-255-9182   The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA, or ARA) are conserved components of the breast milks of all well-nourished mothers worldwide. Since at least the mid-1990s, they have been permitted as components of infant formulas in Europe, and since 2001 in the USA. Prior to about 1990, the safest sources of fats for infant formulas were vegetable oils with no LCPUFA, or dairy fat with negligible DHA. Concerns…

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On the Contribution of Plasma Lysophospholipid and Non-Esterified Docosahexaenoic Acid to the Brain

Richard P. Bazinet Associate Professor, Canada Research Chair in Brain Lipid Metabolism Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto FitzGerald Building, 150 College Street, Room 306 Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 Email – richard.bazinet@utoronto.ca   The brain has a lot of docosahexaenoic acid The brain is particularly enriched with the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) while being almost devoid of other omega-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Within the brain DHA makes up around 10% of the total fatty acids and about 50%…

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The Impact of Common Gene Variants on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes

Professor Anne Marie Minihane Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich, UK Website: https://www.uea.ac.uk/medicine/people/profile/a-minihane   Setting the Scene A large body of human prospective epidemiology, as well as rodent feeding studies, have demonstrated the beneficial impact of the “marine” long chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA), EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3), on fetal development, and cardiovascular and cognitive health. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been less congruent, with this apparent lack of consistency likely attributable to a whole host of determinants of…

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Metabolic Effects of Long Chain n-3 Fatty Acids: Implications for Prevention of Diabetes

Professor Jacques Delarue, MD, PhD Department of Nutritional Sciences & Laboratory of Human Nutrition University Hospital/Faculty of Medicine/University of Brest, France jacques.delarue@univ-brest.fr   Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide increasing non-communicable disease characterized by the association with insulin-resistance and defects in insulin secretion. The main factors explaining this increasing prevalence beyond polygenic predisposition are obesity and sedentariness. The basic mechanisms sustaining insulin-resistance (IR) and defects in insulin-secretion are becoming better known. Insulin-resistance relates to the liver, muscle and adipose tissue (AT). Hepatic glucose production is excessive, due to increased…

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The 2013 Omega-3 Fatty Acid – Prostate Cancer Debacle

William S. Harris, PhD Senior Research Scientist, Health Diagnostic Laboratory, Inc. (Richmond, VA) Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota President, OmegaQuant Analytics, LLC (Sioux Falls, SD)   On July 11, 2013 a paper was published online by Brasky et al. in the J Natl Cancer Institute entitled, “Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk in the SELECT Trial.”(1) This paper was widely publicized across all media platforms, even finding its way onto the network evening news programs. What did the study actually…

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Omega-3 PUFAs: Who Could Have Predicted?

Guest Article Joyce A. Nettleton, D.Sc. Past Editor, PUFA Newsletter   How far omega-3 (n-3) PUFA research has come! The 1936 medical observations of Israel Rabinowitch describing the rarity of arteriosclerosis among the Inuit of the eastern Canadian Arctic and similarly among the northwest Greenlanders led to the report of high levels of long-chain omega-3 PUFAs (n-3 LC-PUFAs) in Inuit plasma lipids by Bang and Dyerberg. Finally, Dyerberg and colleagues suggested that high levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs were linked to the prevention of thrombosis and CVD. The involvement of these…

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