The Effect of Macronutrient Composition on Endogenous Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status during Weight Loss

The Effect of Macronutrient Composition on Endogenous Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status during Weight Loss

This article at a glance The influence on tissue fatty acid composition of three different isocaloric diets  containing carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, or a reduced fat content, respectively, was assessed in overweight-obese adults on a 500 kcal/d-energy restriction in a randomized controlled intervention trial. The study had been designed to avoid previous limitations in addressing the effect of macronutrients on weight loss, and revealed improvements in insulin control in participants on the low-glycemic index diet. However, potential adverse effects on polyunsaturated fatty…

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Guidelines and EPA+DHA: Irreconcilable?

  Prof. Dr. C. von Schacky, Preventive Cardiology, Med Clinic I, University of Munich, and Omegametrix, Martinsried, both Germany. Email: Clemens.vonSchacky@med.uni-muenchen.de   Cardiac societies, like the American Heart Association (AHA) or the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), periodically publish guidelines, among them on primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (AHA) or cardiovascular prevention (ESC) (1,2). In addition, AHA also sometimes publishes “scientific statements” or “science advisories” on certain topics, of which a recent one dealt with supplements containing the two omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid…

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Omega-3 LCPUFA Intake-Induced Molecular Changes in Type 2 Diabetes

This article at a glance The effects of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on deranged glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetics are incompletely understood. Metabolomic analyses of blood samples from two recent randomized controlled clinical trials in American and Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes link omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to changes in branched-chain amino acids and to furan fatty acid metabolism.   Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease in which people cannot adequately control blood glucose levels. Blood glucose values > 6.9 mM (fasting) and > 11 mM…

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Enhancing Breast Cancer Treatment with Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Miranda Brun, PhD and Catherine J. Field, PhD RD Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada   In North America and Europe, breast cancer accounts for over 25% of all new cancer diagnoses in women, and approximately 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime (1-3). Despite ongoing advances in screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and one of the most expensive to treat (4). Relapse and metastasis…

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F3-Isoprostanes and F4-Neuroprostanes: Non-enzymatic Cyclic Oxygenated Metabolites of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Biomarkers and Bioactive Lipids

Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Valérie Bultel-Poncé, Guillaume Reversat, Alexandre Guy, Joseph Vercauteren, Claire Vigor, Thierry Durand. Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, ENSCM, Montpellier, France.   Thierry Durand Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, ENSCM, Montpellier (France). Phone: +33 4 11 75 95 58 / Email: Thierry.Durand@umontpellier.fr   Abstract: The isoprostanoids are non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) formed in vivo by free radical mechanism. Those cyclic oxygenated metabolites named isoprostanes (IsoPs) were originally discovered…

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Indications for an Association between Higher PUFA Intake with Improved Lean Mass and Reduced Adiposity in Children

This article at a glance This study addressed if any associations exist between self-reported dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and obesity in 7-12 year old US American children from a racially diverse background. Associations were identified between higher total PUFA intake and lower body fat and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Total dietary PUFA intake, as well as the ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acid intake, as reported by the children, was positively correlated with lean mass.   Obesity in children, or pediatric obesity, has shown a gradually increasing prevalence…

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No Change in Upper Gastrointestinal Complications from Low-Dose Aspirin with Concurrent Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake

This article at a glance This study assessed if in a large group of patients taking low-dose aspirin for thromboprophylactic purposes during their otherwise daily life, the concurrent use of prescription omega-3 fatty acids would affect the incidence of upper-gastrointestinal complications. Drawing from a large patient register, the authors determined that concurrent use of low-dose aspirin together with prescription omega-3 fatty acids did not change the risk of gastro-intestinal complications.   Aspirin was the first synthetic pharmacological entity to be brought to the market, more than one hundred years ago….

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Sustaining DHA Accretion during Recovery from Acute Malnutrition with Improvements in Ready-to-Use-Therapeutic Foods

This article at a glance Two recent studes have explored the possibility of adjusting the fatty acid composition of Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) that are used to rehabilitate malnourished children, with the aim of better supporting omega-3 LCPUFA status. DHA levels drop during the recovery of malnourished children treated with a standard RUTF – this is likely to be caused by suppression by excess omega-6 linoleic acid of increased accretion of DHA for the growth of the central nervous system. Two ways to sustain DHA accretion are shown: direct supplementation…

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The Impact of Common Gene Variants on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes

Professor Anne Marie Minihane Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich, UK Website: https://www.uea.ac.uk/medicine/people/profile/a-minihane   Setting the Scene A large body of human prospective epidemiology, as well as rodent feeding studies, have demonstrated the beneficial impact of the “marine” long chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA), EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3), on fetal development, and cardiovascular and cognitive health. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been less congruent, with this apparent lack of consistency likely attributable to a whole host of determinants of…

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Metabolic Effects of Long Chain n-3 Fatty Acids: Implications for Prevention of Diabetes

Professor Jacques Delarue, MD, PhD Department of Nutritional Sciences & Laboratory of Human Nutrition University Hospital/Faculty of Medicine/University of Brest, France jacques.delarue@univ-brest.fr   Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide increasing non-communicable disease characterized by the association with insulin-resistance and defects in insulin secretion. The main factors explaining this increasing prevalence beyond polygenic predisposition are obesity and sedentariness. The basic mechanisms sustaining insulin-resistance (IR) and defects in insulin-secretion are becoming better known. Insulin-resistance relates to the liver, muscle and adipose tissue (AT). Hepatic glucose production is excessive, due to increased…

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