The RvD1/LTB4 Ratio in Saliva – Assessing the Usefulness of an Innovative Biomarker for the Resolution of Inflammation in Vascular Disease.

The RvD1/LTB4 Ratio in Saliva – Assessing the Usefulness of an Innovative Biomarker for the Resolution of Inflammation in Vascular Disease.

This article at a glance The potential utility of the ratio of resolvin D1 (RvD1), a pro-resolving lipid mediator derived from DHA, to leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a pro-inflammatory mediator derived from AA, in saliva was determined to predict the level of non-resolving vascular inflammation. The study reports that patients with a higher carotid intima-media thickness as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis had a significantly lower RvD1/LTB4 ratio. The ratio integrates resolution and inflammation processes using lipid mediator levels that can be determined by an ELISA method in readily collected saliva….

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Guidelines and EPA+DHA: Irreconcilable?

  Prof. Dr. C. von Schacky, Preventive Cardiology, Med Clinic I, University of Munich, and Omegametrix, Martinsried, both Germany. Email: Clemens.vonSchacky@med.uni-muenchen.de   Cardiac societies, like the American Heart Association (AHA) or the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), periodically publish guidelines, among them on primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (AHA) or cardiovascular prevention (ESC) (1,2). In addition, AHA also sometimes publishes “scientific statements” or “science advisories” on certain topics, of which a recent one dealt with supplements containing the two omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid…

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Evaluating the Value of Stratification on Omega-3 LCPUFA Levels when the Randomized Controlled Testing Methodology is not Sufficiently Well-Controlled

This article at a glance This pilot study evaluated the concept that stratification of study participants can be useful for improving interpretations of the relationship between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake and biological effect. In patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart valve replacement surgery, one group of individuals randomly assigned to receive pre-operative fish oil supplementation displayed largely overlapping erythrocyte membrane omega-3 levels with placebo-treated patients. After stratifying the pooled patient groups by high and low omega-3 status, or their omega-3 to omega-6 ratio, statistically significant…

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Evaluating the Formation of Non-Enzymatic Oxidation Products of EPA and AA in a Population at Risk for Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency

This article at a glance This study addressed the relationship between omega-3 status in the Inuit and the plasma levels of omega-3 LCPUFA-derived isoprostanes. EPA-derived isoprostane levels were positively related to omega-3 fatty acid status, and unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors, unlike isoprostanes derived from arachidonic acid. Older Inuit that adhere more strongly to traditional marine food sources had higher levels of EPA-derived isoprostanes, possibly reflecting a contribution of higher omega-3 intake to reducing cardiometabolic disease risk.   A diet rich in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), such as…

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Lower Risk of Heart Failure Linked to Higher Blood EPA Concentrations

In congestive heart failure, the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood for the rest of the body’s needs. The condition can develop as a result of coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes or other disorder. About 75% of patients with heart failure have hypertension, with a previous myocardial infarction posing nearly as great a risk. The American Heart Association estimates that approximately half the people diagnosed with heart failure die within 5 years. After the age of 40, the chance of developing heart failure is 1 in…

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Gaining Insight into the Relative Contributions of EPA and DHA to Lowering the Risk for Atherothrombotic Disease Incidence

This article at a glance Two recent studies have assessed whether either EPA or DHA may be more closely associated to markers of risk for the development and incidence of atherosclerotic disease. In elderly Japanese patients at high risk for acute atherothrombotic complications, the serum EPA level was associated with a lower incidence of plaque destabilization and infarction. In obese adults 18-70 years old with sub-clinical systemic inflammation, the daily intake of DHA was related to a more marked anti-inflammatory blood profile than EPA intake. The studies provide new indications…

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EPA/DHA Intake Linked to Lower Risk for Myocardial Infarction Related to PCB Exposure

This article at a glance This is the first prospective cohort study that determined if a relationship between PCB exposure and risk for myocardial infarction exists in men, and if such an association is sensitive to the dietary intake of EPA and DHA. The study reports that PCB exposure is linked to a higher risk for myocardial infarction in a large group of adult Swedish men followed for 12 years. Adult men with a higher EPA/DHA intake had a lower incidence of myocardial infarction associated with PCB exposure.   Polychlorinated…

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Adequate Dietary Intake of Omega-3 LCPUFA by People Aged 55-80 Years is Associated with a Markedly Reduced Risk of Death from Cardiovascular and Coronary Heart Disease in the Context of a Mediterranean Diet

This article at a glance This study has examined the relationship between ALA and omega-3 LCPUFA intake, and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and death in older adults. People who were at known risk of developing cardiovascular disease and that met international recommended intake levels of ALA (≥0.7 en%) and omega-3 LCPUFA (≥500 mg/d EPA plus DHA) in the context of switching to a Mediterranean diet had a 37% reduced risk of dying from any cause. The study showed that meeting omega-3 LCPUFA intake recommendations was associated with a reduction in…

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Evaluating PCSK9 as a New Point of Control for the Actions of Omega-3 LCPUFA on Blood Lipids

This article at a glance Two recent studies have addressed if dietary supplementation with fish oil or DHA-enriched canola oil would modify the plasma levels of PCSK9, a pivotal regulator of LDL levels. Modest decreases in PCSK9 levels were achieved in both studies, demonstrating that this protein is susceptible to dietary intervention by omega-3 LCPUFA. New studies may assess if PCSK9 down-regulation by omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation is of benefit to people with elevated LDL levels.   An elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level is associated with an increased risk of…

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Higher Total Omega-3 Intake is Associated with Less Vascular Calcification in Older Women

This article at a glance Calcification of the abdominal aorta is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of other CVD risk factors. This study addressed whether vascular calcification development in adults followed over an 18-year period displays a relation to dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The study reports that higher alpha-linolenic acid and total omega-3 fatty acid intake is associated with reduced severity of aortic calcification in women. This association was not found in men. The results may help identify additional patient groups that are at risk…

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