Prenatal and Infant Health Studies Page

Brain Development          (top)

Bakker EC, Hornstra G, Blanco CE, Vles JS (2009). Relationship between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids at birth and motor function at 7 years of age. Eur J Clin Nutr. 63:499-504. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18091766

Boucher O, Burden MJ, Muckle G, et al. (2011). Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age. Am J Clin Nutr. 93:1025-37.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21389181

Campoy C, Escolano-Margarit MV, Ramos R (2011). Effects of prenatal fish oil and 5 methyltetrahydrofolate supplementation on cognitive development of children at 6.5 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr. 94:1880S-8.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21849596

Colombo J, Gustafson KM, Gajewski BJ, et al. (2016). Prenatal DHA supplementation and infant attention. Pediatr Res. 80:656-62.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362506

Colombo J, Kannass KN, Shaddy DJ, et al. (2004). Maternal; DHA and the development of attention in infancy and toddlerhood. Child Dev. 75:1254-67.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15260876

Cheruku SR, Montgomery-Downs HE , Farakas SL, et al. (2002). Higher maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy is associated with a more mature neonatal sleep-state patterning. Am J Clin Nutr. 76:608-13.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12198007

Dunstan JA, Simmer K, Dixon G, Prescott SL (2008). Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2)years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 93:F45-50.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17185423

Escalano-Margarit MV, Ramos R, Beyer J et al. (2011). Prenatal DHA status and neurological outcomes in children aged 5.5 years are positively associated. J Nutr. 141:1216-23.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21525247

Gustafson KM, Carlson SE, Colombo J, et al. (2013). Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy on fetal heart rate and variability: A randomized clinical trial. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.88:331-8.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23433688

Helland IB, Smith I, Blomen B, et al. (2008). Effect of supplementing pregnant and lactating mothers with n-3 very-long-chain fatty acids on children’s IQ and body mass index at 7 years of age. Pediatrics. 122:e472-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18676533

Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K, et al. (2003). Maternal Supplementation With Very-Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids During Pregnancy and Lactation Augments Children’s IQ at 4 Years of Age. Pediatrics. 111:e39-44.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12509593

Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW, Muckle G, et al. (2008). Beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid on infant development: evidence from the Inuit of arctic Quebec. J Pediatr. 152:356-64.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18280840

Jensen CL, Voigt RG, Llorente AM, et al. (2010). Effects of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed term infants. J Pediatr. 157:900-5.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20655543

Jensen CL, Voigt RG, Prager TC, et al. (2005). Effects of maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on visual function and neurodevelopment in breastfed term infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 82:125-32.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16002810

Judge MP, Cong X, Harel O, et al. (2012). Maternal consumption of a DHA-containing functional food benefits infant sleep patterning: an early neurodevelopmental measure. Early Hum Dev. 88:531-7.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22269042

Judge MP, Harel O, Lammi-Keefe CJ (2007). Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid- containing functional food during pregnancy; benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not recognition memory tasks at 9 mo. Am J Clin Nutr. 85:1572-7.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17556695

Ramakrishnan U, Gonzalez-Casanova I, Schnaas L, et al. (2016). Prenatal supplementation with DHA improves attention at 5 y of age: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 104:1075-82.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27604770

Schwarzenberg SJ, Georgieff MK; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition (2018). Advocacy for Improving Nutrition in the First 1000 Days to Support Childhood Development and Adult Health. Pediatrics. 141:e20173716. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29358479 

Visual Development          (top)

European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2009). Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH on DHA and support of the visual development of the unborn child and breastfed infant. The EFSA Journal. 1006:1-12.
https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1006

Innis SM, Gilley J, Werker J (2001). Are human milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids related to visual and neural development in breast-fed term infants? J Pediatr. 139:532-8.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11598600

Innis SM and Friesen RW (2008). Essential n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women and early visual acuity maturation in term infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 87:548-57.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18326591

Jacques C, Levy E, Muckle G, et al. (2011). Long-term effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on visual function in school-age children. J Pediatr. 158:83-90.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20797725

Judge MP, Harel O, Lammi-Keefe CJ (2007). A docosahexaenoic acid- functional food during pregnancy benefits infant visual acuity at 4 but not 6 months of age. Lipids. 42:117-22.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17393217

Lauritzen L, Jørgensen MH, Mikkelsen TB, et al. (2004). Maternal Fish oil supplementation in lactation:effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes. Lipids. 39:195-206.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15233397

Malcolm CA, Hamilton R, McCulloch DL, et al. (2003). Scotopic electroretinogram in term infants born of mothers supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 44:3685-91.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12882824

Malcolm C, McCulloch D, Montgomery C, et al. (2003). Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and visual evoked potential development in term infants: a double blind, prospective, randomised trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 88:F383-90.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1721603/

Shindou H, Koso H, Sasaki J, et al. (2017). Docosahexaenoic acid preserves visual function by maintaining correct disc morphology in retinal photoreceptor cells. J Biol Chem. 292:12054-64.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28578316

Pre-Term Birth          (top)

Carlson SE, Colombo J, Gajewski BJ, et al. (2013). DHA supplementation and pregnancy outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 97:808-15.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23426033

Carlson SE, Gajewski BJ, Valentine CJ, et al. (2017). Assessment of DHA on reducing early preterm birth: the ADORE randomized controlled trial protocol. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 17:62.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28193189

Chen B, Ji X, Zhang L, et al. (2016). Fish oil supplementation improves pregnancy outcomes and size of the newborn: a meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled trials. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 29:2017-27.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=27012494

Horvath A, Koletzko B, Szajewska H (2007). Effect of supplementation of women in high-risk pregnancies with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 98:253-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17419889

Kar S, Wong M, Rogozinska E, Thangaratinam S (2016). Effects of omega-3 fatty acids in prevention of early preterm delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 198:40-6.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773247

Koletzko B, Boey CC, Campoy C, et al. (2014). Current information and Asian perspectives on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy: systematic review and practice recommendations from an early nutrition academy workshop. Ann Nutr Metab. 65:49-80. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25227906

Makrides M, Duley L, Olsen SF (2006). Marine oil, and other prostaglandin precursor, supplementation for pregnancy uncomplicated by pre-eclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.  Issue 3, Article No. CD003402.
https://www.cochrane.org/CD003402/PREG_marine-oil-and-other-prostaglandin-precursor-supplementation-for-pregnancy-uncomplicated-by-pre-eclampsia-or-intrauterine-growth-restriction

Makrides M, Gibson R, McPhee A, et al. (2010).  Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children. JAMA. 304:1657-83.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20959577

Salvig JD, Lamont RF (2011). Evidence regarding an effect of marine n-3 fatty acids on preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 90:825-38.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21535434

Smuts CM, Huang M, Mundy D, et al. (2003). A randomized trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 101:469-79.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12636950

Yelland LN, Gajewski BJ, Colombo J, et al. (2016). Predicting the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to reduce early preterm birth in Australia and the United States using results of within country randomized controlled trials. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 112:44-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27637340

Immune System Function          (top)

Bisgaard H, Stokholm J, Chawes BL, et al. (2016). Fish Oil-Derived Fatty Acids in Pregnancy and Wheeze and Asthma in Offspring. N Engl J Med. 375:2530-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28029926

D’Vaz N, Meldrum SJ, Dunstan JA, et al. (2012). Fish oil supplementation in early infancy modulates developing infant immune responses. Clin Exp Allergy. 42:1206-16.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22805468

Escamilla-Nuñez MC, Barraza-Villarreal A, Hernández-Cadena L, et al. (2014). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and respiratory symptoms in children. Chest. 146:373-82.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24626819

Furuhjelm C, Warstedt K, Fagerås M, et al. (2011). Allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age in relation to plasma omega-3 fatty acids and maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 22:505-14.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21332799

Furuhjelm C, Warstedt K, Larsson J, et al. (2009). Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation may decrease the risk of infant allergy. Acta Pediatr. 98:1461-7.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19489765

Granot E, Jakobovich E, Rabinowitz R, et al. (2011). DHA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation affects infants’ cellular but not humoral immune response. Mediators Inflamm. 2011:493925.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21941411

Imhoff-Kunsch B, Stein AD, Martorell R, et al. (2011). Prenatal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and infant morbidity: randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 128:e505-12.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21807696

Klemens CM, Berman DR, Mozurkewich EL (2011). The effect of perinatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory markers and allergic diseases: a systematic review. BJOG. 118:916-25.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21658192

Koletzko B, Boey CC, Campoy C, et al. (2014). Current information and Asian perspectives on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy: systematic review and practice recommendations from an early nutrition academy workshop. Ann Nutr Metab. 65:49-80.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25227906

Krauss- Etschmann S, Hartl D, Rzehak P, et al. (2008). Decreased cord blood IL-4, IL-13, and CCR4 and increased TGF-beta levels after fish oil supplementation of pregnant women. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 121:464-470.e6.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17980419

Lee HS, Barraza-Villarreal A, Hernandez-Vargas H, et al. (2013). Modulation of DNA methylation states and infant immune system by dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFA during pregnancy in an intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. 98:480-7.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23761484

Olsen SF, Østerdal ML, Salvig JD, et al. (2008). Fish oil intake compared with olive oil intake in late pregnancy and asthma in offspring: 16 y of registry-based follow-up from a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 88:167-75.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18614738

Palmer DJ, Sullivan T, Gold MS, et al. (2012). Effect of n-3 LCPUFA long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on infants’ allergies in first year of life: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 344:e184.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22294737

Warstedt K, Furuhjelm C, Duchen K, et al. (2009). The effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on maternal eicosanoid, cytokine, and chemokine secretion. Pediatr Res. 66:212-7.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19390480

Cost Benefit Analysis       (top)

Shireman TI, Kerling EH, Gajewski BJ, et al. (2016). Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation (DHA) and the return on investment for pregnancy outcomes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 111:8-10.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27499448

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