Clinical Conditions

F3-Isoprostanes and F4-Neuroprostanes: Non-enzymatic Cyclic Oxygenated Metabolites of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Biomarkers and Bioactive Lipids

Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Valérie Bultel-Poncé, Guillaume Reversat, Alexandre Guy, Joseph Vercauteren, Claire Vigor, Thierry Durand. Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, ENSCM, Montpellier, France.   Thierry Durand Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, ENSCM, Montpellier (France). Phone: +33 4 11 75 95 58 / Email: Thierry.Durand@umontpellier.fr   Abstract: The isoprostanoids are non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) formed in vivo by free radical mechanism. Those cyclic oxygenated metabolites named isoprostanes (IsoPs) were originally discovered…

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The Impact of Omega-3 LCPUFA on Colorectal Cancer Development Guides Clinical Research towards Considering Immune Modulation and Regulation of Genomic Stability

This article at a glance In adults that develop colorectal cancer, survival is increased if omega-3 LCPUFA intake is modestly increased after diagnosis. Large prospective cohort studies tracked colorectal cancer incidence and assessed genomic stability and immune cell composition of tumors in relation to dietary intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFA). The risk of developing tumors characterized by higher genomic instability and richer in infiltrates of T-regulatory lymphocyte cells was significantly reduced in people with higher dietary intakes of omega-3 LCPUFA.   Colorectal cancer, or cancer of…

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Indications for an Association between Higher PUFA Intake with Improved Lean Mass and Reduced Adiposity in Children

This article at a glance This study addressed if any associations exist between self-reported dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and obesity in 7-12 year old US American children from a racially diverse background. Associations were identified between higher total PUFA intake and lower body fat and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Total dietary PUFA intake, as well as the ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acid intake, as reported by the children, was positively correlated with lean mass.   Obesity in children, or pediatric obesity, has shown a gradually increasing prevalence…

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No Change in Upper Gastrointestinal Complications from Low-Dose Aspirin with Concurrent Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake

This article at a glance This study assessed if in a large group of patients taking low-dose aspirin for thromboprophylactic purposes during their otherwise daily life, the concurrent use of prescription omega-3 fatty acids would affect the incidence of upper-gastrointestinal complications. Drawing from a large patient register, the authors determined that concurrent use of low-dose aspirin together with prescription omega-3 fatty acids did not change the risk of gastro-intestinal complications.   Aspirin was the first synthetic pharmacological entity to be brought to the market, more than one hundred years ago….

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Achieving Seizure Freedom with Fish Oil in Children with Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy

This article at a glance This study addressed the question whether daily intake of fish oil during three months had an effect on treatment-resistant epilepsy in children. More than half of the children had no epileptic attacks during the intervention period. The results support a limited number of studies in humans showing that omega-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects in epilepsy. Future studies with optimized protocols will be required to confirm the results.   Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that can be idiopathic, i.e. occur without a clearly identifiable…

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Sustaining DHA Accretion during Recovery from Acute Malnutrition with Improvements in Ready-to-Use-Therapeutic Foods

This article at a glance Two recent studes have explored the possibility of adjusting the fatty acid composition of Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) that are used to rehabilitate malnourished children, with the aim of better supporting omega-3 LCPUFA status. DHA levels drop during the recovery of malnourished children treated with a standard RUTF – this is likely to be caused by suppression by excess omega-6 linoleic acid of increased accretion of DHA for the growth of the central nervous system. Two ways to sustain DHA accretion are shown: direct supplementation…

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The Impact of Common Gene Variants on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes

Professor Anne Marie Minihane Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich, UK Website: https://www.uea.ac.uk/medicine/people/profile/a-minihane   Setting the Scene A large body of human prospective epidemiology, as well as rodent feeding studies, have demonstrated the beneficial impact of the “marine” long chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA), EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3), on fetal development, and cardiovascular and cognitive health. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been less congruent, with this apparent lack of consistency likely attributable to a whole host of determinants of…

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Metabolic Effects of Long Chain n-3 Fatty Acids: Implications for Prevention of Diabetes

Professor Jacques Delarue, MD, PhD Department of Nutritional Sciences & Laboratory of Human Nutrition University Hospital/Faculty of Medicine/University of Brest, France jacques.delarue@univ-brest.fr   Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide increasing non-communicable disease characterized by the association with insulin-resistance and defects in insulin secretion. The main factors explaining this increasing prevalence beyond polygenic predisposition are obesity and sedentariness. The basic mechanisms sustaining insulin-resistance (IR) and defects in insulin-secretion are becoming better known. Insulin-resistance relates to the liver, muscle and adipose tissue (AT). Hepatic glucose production is excessive, due to increased…

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Omega-3 LCPUFA Supplementation; Activating a Protective Cardiovascular Response in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

This article at a glance In this report the authors present the changes in plasma levels of EPA- and DHA-derived lipid mediators in response to an eight-week supplementation with omega-3 LCPUFA in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Importantly the study shows that even in an advanced disease state the body remains capable of mounting a protective tissue response with an increased level of resolvin D1. This is one of the first studies showing lipid mediator formation in response to omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded trial of…

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A Balanced Approach to Omega-3 Benefits

Bill Lands, Fellow, American Society for Nutrition, College Park, MD, USA Email: wemlands@att.net; Website: http://efaeducation.org/ Similarities and differences between the omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) essential nutrients have moved in and out of discussions over the past 50 years as the biomedical community explored their diverse actions in human health. Evidence-based misunderstandings and apparent contradictions easily occur whenever a portion of the whole is discussed without a broader context to keep a balanced perspective (e.g., 1). Current paradoxes about benefits and harm from n-3 and n-6 nutrients prompt me to…

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