Clinical Conditions

Perinatal Omega-3 Deficiency May Condition Future Sensitivity to Food Reward and Impaired Energy Expenditure

This article at a glance Is it possible that the quality of food during gestation and around birth sets the stage for the eating behaviour of the offspring when they become adults? This study reports that in mice a perinatal deficiency in dietary omega-3 fatty acids has long-lasting effects into adulthood, enhancing the brain circuits for reward, enhancing the anxiety state and reducing spontaneous activity. The results provide experimental support for the hypothesis that dietary omega-3 LCPUFA deficiency during pregnancy increases the motivation to eat easily palatable foods that may…

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Improving the Response Rate in Migraine Headache Attacks

This article at a glance This study addressed the potential effectiveness of daily EPA/DHA for migraine headaches in adults with chronic migraine also taking low-dose amitriptyline, a drug used for migraine prevention. Participants taking both EPA/DHA and amitriptyline for 2 months reported a major reduction in the frequency of headache attacks. The results of this study warrant new studies to confirm the significant effect of the EPA/DHA intervention.   Migraine is one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system. Migraine manifests most typically as recurrent headaches that…

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Antimicrobial Defense Linked to the Hemostatic Response

This article at a glance This study reports that the coagulation of blood leads to the formation of arachidonic acid (AA)-, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)- and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) that promote microbial clearance. Clotting of human whole blood led to the formation of a distinct cluster of SPMs, namely lipoxin B4, resolvin E1, resolvin D1, resolvin D5, and maresin 1. The results uncover a new role of hemostasis that extends beyond the current understanding of it as a passive barrier that stems bleeding, to one that involves…

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The Effect of Macronutrient Composition on Endogenous Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status during Weight Loss

This article at a glance The influence on tissue fatty acid composition of three different isocaloric diets  containing carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, or a reduced fat content, respectively, was assessed in overweight-obese adults on a 500 kcal/d-energy restriction in a randomized controlled intervention trial. The study had been designed to avoid previous limitations in addressing the effect of macronutrients on weight loss, and revealed improvements in insulin control in participants on the low-glycemic index diet. However, potential adverse effects on polyunsaturated fatty…

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The Development of Chemoresistance: A New Immune Cell-Activating Mechanism Involving Uncommon Lipids that Mediate a Stem Cell Response to Genotoxicity

This article at a glance This study identifies the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid hexadecatetraenoic acid (16:4 n-3) as a ligand of GPR120, a receptor studied for its role in regulating inflammation, energy metabolism and satiety. 16:4 n-3, previously identified as a fatty acid released by mesenchymal stem cells following the exposure to platinum-containing chemotherapeutic drugs, activated GPR120 in a specific population of macrophages in the spleen. GPR120-positive splenic macrophages activated by 16:4 n-3 produced a unique lysophospholipid, lysophosphatidylcholine with esterified nervonic acid (lysoPC(24:1)), which mediated a chemoresistance response to platinum-based…

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Evaluating the Value of Stratification on Omega-3 LCPUFA Levels when the Randomized Controlled Testing Methodology is not Sufficiently Well-Controlled

This article at a glance This pilot study evaluated the concept that stratification of study participants can be useful for improving interpretations of the relationship between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake and biological effect. In patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart valve replacement surgery, one group of individuals randomly assigned to receive pre-operative fish oil supplementation displayed largely overlapping erythrocyte membrane omega-3 levels with placebo-treated patients. After stratifying the pooled patient groups by high and low omega-3 status, or their omega-3 to omega-6 ratio, statistically significant…

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Omega-3 LCPUFA Intake-Induced Molecular Changes in Type 2 Diabetes

This article at a glance The effects of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on deranged glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetics are incompletely understood. Metabolomic analyses of blood samples from two recent randomized controlled clinical trials in American and Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes link omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to changes in branched-chain amino acids and to furan fatty acid metabolism.   Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease in which people cannot adequately control blood glucose levels. Blood glucose values > 6.9 mM (fasting) and > 11 mM…

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Enhancing Breast Cancer Treatment with Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Miranda Brun, PhD and Catherine J. Field, PhD RD Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada   In North America and Europe, breast cancer accounts for over 25% of all new cancer diagnoses in women, and approximately 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime (1-3). Despite ongoing advances in screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and one of the most expensive to treat (4). Relapse and metastasis…

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F3-Isoprostanes and F4-Neuroprostanes: Non-enzymatic Cyclic Oxygenated Metabolites of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Biomarkers and Bioactive Lipids

Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Valérie Bultel-Poncé, Guillaume Reversat, Alexandre Guy, Joseph Vercauteren, Claire Vigor, Thierry Durand. Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, ENSCM, Montpellier, France.   Thierry Durand Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, ENSCM, Montpellier (France). Phone: +33 4 11 75 95 58 / Email: Thierry.Durand@umontpellier.fr   Abstract: The isoprostanoids are non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) formed in vivo by free radical mechanism. Those cyclic oxygenated metabolites named isoprostanes (IsoPs) were originally discovered…

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The Impact of Omega-3 LCPUFA on Colorectal Cancer Development Guides Clinical Research towards Considering Immune Modulation and Regulation of Genomic Stability

This article at a glance In adults that develop colorectal cancer, survival is increased if omega-3 LCPUFA intake is modestly increased after diagnosis. Large prospective cohort studies tracked colorectal cancer incidence and assessed genomic stability and immune cell composition of tumors in relation to dietary intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFA). The risk of developing tumors characterized by higher genomic instability and richer in infiltrates of T-regulatory lymphocyte cells was significantly reduced in people with higher dietary intakes of omega-3 LCPUFA.   Colorectal cancer, or cancer of…

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