Cardiovascular Health Studies Page

Reduction in Cardiac Death Risk          (top)

Casula M, Soranna D, Catapano AL, Corrao G (2013). Long-term effect of high dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for secondary prevention of cardiovascular outcomes: A meta-analysis of randomized, placebo controlled trials. Atheroscler Suppl. 14:243-51.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23958480                 

Chen Q, Cheng LQ, Xiao TH, et al. (2011). Effects of omega-3 fatty acid for sudden cardiac death prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease: a contemporary meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 25:259-65.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21626218

Delgado-Lista J, Perez-Martinez P, Lopez-Miranda J, Perez-Jimenez F (2012). Long chain omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Br J Nutr. 107:S201-13.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22591894

Kotwal S, Jun M, Sullivan D, et al. (2012). Omega 3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 5:808-18.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110790

Kwak SM, Myung SK, Lee YJ, Seo HG (2012). Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 172:686-94.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22493407

León H, Shibata MC, Sivakumaran S, et al. (2008). Effect of fish oil on arrhythmias and mortality: systematic review. BMJ. 337:a2931.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19106137

Maki KC, Dicklin MR (2018). Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Glass Half Full or Time to Nail the Coffin Shut? Nutrients. 10:E864.
http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/7/864/pdf 
(commissioned by GOED)

Maki KC, Palacios OM, Bell M, Toth PP (2017). Use of supplemental long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and risk for cardiac death: An updated meta-analysis and review of research gaps. J Clin Lipidol. 11:1152-60.
https://www.lipidjournal.com/article/S1933-2874(17)30395-1/pdf 
(commissioned by GOED)

Marik PE, Varon J (2009). Omega-3 dietary supplements and the risk of cardiovascular events: a systematic review. Clin Cardiol. 32:365-72.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19609891

Rizos EC, Ntzani EE, Bika E, et al. (2012). Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 308:1024-33.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22968891

Trikalinos TA, Lee J, Moorthy D, et al. (2012). Effects of Eicosapentanoic Acid and Docosahexanoic Acid on Mortality Across Diverse Settings: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials and Prospective Cohorts: Nutritional Research Series, Vol. 4. AHRQ Publication.Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 12-EHC040-EF.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0041092/

Trikalinos TA, Moorthy D, Chung M, et al. (2012). Concordance of randomized and nonrandomized studies was unrelated to translational patterns of two nutrient-disease associations. J Clin Epidemiol. 65:16-29.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22047889

Wang C, Harris WS, Chung M, et al. (2006). n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 84:5-17.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16825676

Wen YT, Dai JH, Gao Q (2014). Effects of Omega-3 fatty acid on major cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 24:470-5.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24472636

Zhao YT, Chen Q, Sun YX, et al. (2009). Prevention of sudden cardiac death with omega-3 fatty acids in patients with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Med. 41:301-10.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19148838

Reduction in Coronary Heart Disease Risk          (top) 

Alexander DD, Miller PE, Van Elswyk ME, et al. (2017). A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Prospective Cohort Studies of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease Risk. Mayo Clin Proc. 92:15-29.
https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(16)30681-4/pdf 
(commissioned by GOED)

Del Gobbo LC, Imamura F, Aslibekyan S, et al. (2016). ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biomarkers and Coronary Heart Disease: Pooling Project of 19 Cohort Studies. JAMA Intern Med. 176:1155-66.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5183535/pdf/nihms833377.pdf

Blood Pressure Reduction          (top)

Cabo J, Alonso R, Mata P (2012). Omega-3 fatty acids and blood pressure. Br J Nutr. 107:S195-200.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22591893

Campbell F, Dickinson HO, Critchley JA, et al. (2013). A systematic review of fish-oil supplements for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 20:107–20.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22345681

Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Grobbee DE, et al. (2002). Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials. J Hypertens. 20:1493-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12172309

Miller PE, Van Elswyk M, Alexander DD (2014). Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Hypertens. 27:885-96.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24610882

Triglyceride Lowering          (top)

Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M, et al. (2006). Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review.Atherosclerosis. 189:19-30.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16530201

Bernstein AM, Ding EL, Willett WC, Rimm EB (2012). A meta-analysis shows that docosahexaenoic acid from algal oil reduces serum triglycerides and increases HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in persons without coronary heart disease. J Nutr. 142:99-104.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113870

Castro IA, Barroso LP, Sinnecker P (2005). Functional foods for coronary heart disease risk reduction: a meta-analysis using a multivariate approach. Am Clin Nutr. 82:32-40.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16002797

Chi H, Lin X, Huang H, et al. (2014). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on lipid profiles in dialysis patients: meta-analysis.Arch Med Res. 45:469-77.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25010561

Eslick GD, Howe PR, Smith C, et al. (2009). Benefits of fish oil supplementation in hyperlipidemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 136:4-16.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18774613

Farmer A, Montori V, Dinneen S, Clar C (2001). Fish oil in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. CD003205.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11687050

Friedberg CE, Janssen MJ, Heine RJ, Grobbee DE (1998). Fish oil and glycemic control in diabetes. A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 21:494-500.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9571330

Hartweg J, Farmer AJ, Perera R, et al. (2007). Meta-analysis of the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins and other emerging lipid cardiovascular risk markers in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 50:1593-602.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17541540

Hartweg J, Perera R, Montori V, et al. (2008). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. CD003205.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18254017

Hooper L, Summerbell CD, Thompson R, et al. (2011). Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. CD002137.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22592684

Lohner S, Fekete K, Marosvölgyi T, Decsi T (2013). Gender differences in the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status: systematic review of 51 publications. Ann Nutr Metab. 62:98-112.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23327902

Lorente-Cebrián S, Costa AG, Navas-Carretero S, et al. (2013). Role of omega-3 fatty acids in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases: a review of the evidence. J Physiol Biochem. 69:633-51.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23794360

Montori VM, Farmer A, Wollan PC, Dinneen SF (2000). Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review. Diabetes Care. 23:1407-15.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10977042

Musa-Veloso K, Binns MA, Kocenas AC, et al. (2010). Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid dose-dependently reduce fasting serum triglycerides. Nutr Rev. 68:155-67.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20384846

Oliveira JM, Rondó PH (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids and hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis. HIV Clin Trials. 12:268-74.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22180524

Pei J, Zhao Y, Huang L, et al. (2012). The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in patients with chronic renal failure–a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Ren Nutr. 22:525-32.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22698988

Stradling C, Chen YF, Russell T, et al. (2012). The effects of dietary intervention on HIV dyslipidaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 7:e38121.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22701607

Tatsioni A, Chung M, Sun Y, et al. (2005). Effects of fish oil supplementation on kidney transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. J Am Soc Nephrol. 16:2462-70.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15958723

Tian H, Yao X, Zeng R, et al. (2013). Safety and efficacy of a new parenteral lipid emulsion (SMOF) for surgical patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Rev. 71:815-21.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24180519

Wei MY, Jacobson TA (2011). Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 13:474-83.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21975919

Zheng T, Zhao J, Wang Y, et al. (2013). The limited effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk in patients with impaired glucose metabolism: a meta-analysis. Clin Biochem. 47:369-77.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24342751

Zhu W, Dong C, Du H, et al. (2014). Effects of fish oil on serum lipid profile in dialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Lipids Health Dis. 13:127.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25106703

Reduction in Atrial Fibrillation       (top)

Costanzo S, di Niro V, Di Castelnuovo A, et al. (2013). Prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation in open heart surgery patients by preoperative supplementation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: an updated meta-analysis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 146:906-11.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23587470

He Z, Yang L, Tian J, et al. Efficacy and safety of omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Can J Cardiol. 29:196-203.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22681963

Langlois PL, Hardy G, Manzanares W (2017). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiac surgery patients: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr. 36:737-746.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27293143

Recovery Post-MI        (top)

Heydari B, Abdullah S, Pottala JV, et al. (2016). Effect of omega-3 Acid ethyl esters on left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction: the OMEGA-REMODEL randomized clinical trial. Circulation. 134:378-91.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27482002

Langlois PL, Hardy G, Manzanares W (2017). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiac surgery patients: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr. 36:737-46.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27293143

Decreased Heart Rate         (top)

Hidayat K, Yang J, Zhang Z, et al. (2018). Effect of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on heart rate: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 72:805-17. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29284786

Innes JK, Calder PC (2018). The differential effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on cardiometabolic risk factors: a systematic review. Int J Mol Sci. 19:pii:E532. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29425187

Mozaffarian D, Geelen A, Brouwer IA, et al. (2005). Effect of fish oil on heart rate in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Circulation. 112:1945-52. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16172267

Healthy Blood Vessels     (top)

Pase MP, Grima NA, Sarris J (2011). Do long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduce arterial stiffness? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 106:974-80.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22005318

Wang Q, Liang X, Wang L, et al. (2012). Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on endothelial function: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Atherosclerosis. 221:536-43.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22317966

Xin W, Wei W, Li, X (2012). Effect of fish oil supplementation on fasting vascular endothelial function in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One. 7:e46028.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23029372

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