Brain Health Studies Page

Cognitive Function       (top)

Amen DG, Harris WS, Kidd PM, et al. (2017). Quantitative Erythrocyte Omega-3 EPA Plus DHA Levels are Related to Higher Regional Cerebral Blood Flow on Brain SPECT. J Alzheimers Dis. 58:1189-99.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28527220

Dullemeijer C, Durga J, Brouwer IA, et al. (2007). n 3 fatty acid proportions in plasma and cognitive performance in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 86:1479-85.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17991662

Muldoon MF, Ryan CM, Sheu L, et al. (2010). Serum phospholipid docosahexaenonic acid is associated with cognitive functioning during middle adulthood. J Nutr. 140:848-53.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20181791

Pottala JV, Yaffe K, Robinson JG, et al. (2014). Higher RBC EPA + DHA corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes: WHIMS-MRI study. Neurology. 82:435-42.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24453077

Yurko-Mauro K, Alexander DD, Van Elswyk ME (2015). Docosahexaenoic acid and adult memory: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 10:e0120391.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786262

Zamroziewicz MK, Paul EJ, Zwilling CE, Barbey AK (2017). Determinants of fluid intelligence in healthy aging: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and frontoparietal cortex structure. Nutr Neurosci. 11:1-10.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28492102

Zhang Y, Chen J, Qiu J, et al. (2016). Intakes of fish and polyunsaturated fatty acids and mild-to-severe cognitive impairment risks: a dose-response meta-analysis of 21 cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 103:330-40.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26718417

Mental Health    (top)

Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M, Hibbeln JR (2008). Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 32:568-75.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060675/

Freeman MP, Hibbeln JR, Wisner KL, et al. (2006). Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J Clin Psychiatry. 67:1954-67.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17194275

Hallahan B, Ryan T, Hibbeln JR, et al. (2016). Efficacy of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of depression. Br J Psychiatry. 209:192-201.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103682

Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Belury MA, Andridge R, et al. (2011). Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: a randomized controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 25:1725-1734.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21784145

Liu JJ, Galfalvy HC, Cooper TB, et al. (2013). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in major depressive disorder with comorbid anxiety disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 74:732-8.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23945451

Lin PY, Huang SY, Su KP (2010). A meta-analytic review of polyunsaturated fatty acid compositions in patients with depression. Biol Psychiatry. 68:140-7.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20452573

Lin PY, Mischoulon D, Freeman MP, et al. (2012). Are omega-3 fatty acids antidepressants or just mood-improving agents? The effect depends upon diagnosis, supplement preparation, and severity of depression. Mol Psychiatry. 17:1161-3.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22824812

Mocking RJ, Harmsen I, Assies J, et al. (2016). Meta-analysis and meta-regression of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for major depressive disorder. Transl Psychiatry. 6:e756.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978738

Su KP, Tseng PT, Lin PY, et al. (2018). Association of use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with changes in severity of anxiety symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Network Open. 1(5):e182327. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2702216

Sublette ME, Ellis SP, Geant AL, Mann JJ (2011). Meta-analysis of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in clinical trials in depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 72:1577-84.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21939614

Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR (2003). Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am J Psychiatry. 160:167-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12505817

ADHD/Learning         (top)

Bloch MH, Qawasmi A (2011). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50:991-1000.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21961774

Chang JP, Su KP, Mondelli V, Pariante CM (2018). Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Youths with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials and Biological Studies. Neuropsychopharmacology. 43:534-45.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28741625

Gow RV, Hibbeln JR, Parletta N (2015). Current evidence and future directions for research with omega-3 fatty acids and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 18:133-8.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25581035

Gow RV, Vallee-Tourangeau F, Crawford MA, et al (2013). Omega-3 fatty acids are inversely related to callous and unemotional traits in adolescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 88:411-8.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23664595

Hawkey E, Nigg JT (2014). Omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD: blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials. Clin Psychol Rev. 34:496-505.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25181335

Vesco AT, Young AS, Arnold LE, Fristad MA (2018). Omega-3 supplementation associated with improved parent-rated executive function in youth with mood disorders: secondary analyses of the omega 3 and therapy (OATS) trials. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 59:628-636.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29063592

Yonezawa K, Nonaka S, Iwakura Y, et al. (Epub ahead of print 2018 June 20). Investigation into the plasma concentration of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Japanese attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder patients. J Neural Transm (Vienna).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29926268

Traumatic Brain Injury      (top)

Bailes JE, Mills J (2010). Docosahexaenoic acid reduces traumatic axonal injury in a rodent head injury model. J Neurotrauma. 27:1617-24.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20597639

Bailes JE, Patel V (2014). The potential for DHA to mitigate mild traumatic brain injury. Mil Med. 179:112-6.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25373094

Butt CM, Harrison JL, Rowe RK, et al. (2017). Selective reduction of brain docosahexaenoic acid after experimental brain injury and mitigation of neuroinflammatory outcomes with dietary DHA. Curr Res Concussion.  4:e38–e54.
https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/pdf/10.1055/s-0037-1606836.pdf

Desai A, Kevala K, Kim HY (2014). Depletion of brain docosahexaenoic acid impairs recovery from traumatic brain injury. PLoS One. 9(1):e86472.
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0086472

Lewis M, Ghassemi P, Hibbeln J (2013). Therapeutic use of omega-3 fatty acids in severe head trauma. Am J Emerg Med. 31:273.e5-8.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22867826

Michael-Titus AT, Priestley JV (2014). Omega-3 fatty acids and traumatic neurological injury: from neuroprotection to neuroplasticity? Trends Neurosci. 37:30-8.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24268818

Mills JD, Hadley K, Bailes JE (2011). Dietary supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in traumatic brain injury? Neurosurgery. 68:474-81.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21135750

Oliver JM, Jones MT, Kirk KM, et al. (2016). Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on a Biomarker of Head Trauma in American Football. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 48:974-82.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26765633

Roberts L, Bailes J, Dedhia H, et al. (2008). Surviving a mine explosion. J Am Coll Surg. 207:276-283.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18656058

Schober ME, Requena DF, Abdullah OM, et al. (2016). Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Cognitive Function, Tissue Sparing, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indices of Edema and White Matter Injury in the Immature Rat after Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma. 33:390-402.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26247583

Tyagi E, Agrawal R, Zhuang Y, et al. (2013). Vulnerability imposed by diet and brain trauma for anxiety-like phenotype: implications for post-traumatic stress disorders. PLoS One. 8(3):e57945.
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0057945

Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F (2004). Dietary omega-3 fatty acids normalize BDNF levels, reduce oxidative damage, and counteract learning disability after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma. 21:1457–67.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15672635

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